List of the Salt Makers Captured with Daniel Boone
at The Blue Licks
From Lyman Draper Papers, CV 28-31, and other sources. Where sources differ in name or spellings, both spellings are shown. Those marked with (1) (15 in all) have been confirmed as being from Bedford Co., VA, probably of the Co. of Capt Charles Gwatkins, enlisted July 1777 in Bedford Co, and signed the Oath of Allegiance on September 1, 1777 in Bedford Co. Others may also have been of the Bedford Co., but cannot yet be identified as such. Capt. Gwatkins and many of his Co. were elsewhere at the time, but were expected to relieve the salt makers and were on the way to do so when the capture occurred.
Daniel Asbury (1) (3)
William Brooks (3)
Samuel Brooks (3)
John Brown (1) (2)
Nathaniel Bullock (3)
James Callaway (1) (3)
Micajah (Elijah) Callaway (1) (2)
Jesse Copher (1) (3)
Jack (John) Dunn (2)
Aaron Foreman (2)
Ansel Goodman (1) (2)
George Hendricks (2)
John Holley (1) (2)
Joseph Jackson (1) (2)
Andrew Johnson (2)
Benjamin Kelly (1) (2) (3)
John Martin (Morton) (1)
James Robertson (Robinson) (1)
Bartlett Searcy (3)
William Tracy (1) (3)
William Umphress (Humphrey) (1)
Richard Wade (1) (2)
Scouts / Hunters, not captured:
Originally in the party, but had returned to Boonesborough before the others were captured:
Jesse Hodges **
Note (1): Signatories, Oath of Allegiance on September 1, 1777 in Bedford Co., VA
Note (2): Members of the party adopted by the Indians (Ref: “The Life of Daniel Boone” by Lyman Copeland Draper, p.470), plus 5 others, names unknown.
Note (3): Ransomed to the British at Detroit (Ref: “The Life of Daniel Boone” by Lyman Copeland Draper, p.470), plus 2 others, names unknown.
This is one shy of the total count of salt makers according to most historical records, but one more than what Ansel recollected in his petition (he and about 30 others). The list of 28 captured matches the historical and biographical accounts I have found.
From one of Boone’s biographies:
“From this time on the captives were split into different groups. Some were never heard of again. At least sixteen of the salt makers were adopted into different Indian families. The adoption process started almost immediately after the running of the gauntlet. The adoption process was taken very seriously by the Indians. The adopted members were expected to become full fledged members of the family with all the rights of the clan bestowed on them after the “white had been washed out of their blood”. Some, like Boone, were adopted to replace a favorite son who had fallen in battle.
Some, like Micajah Callaway, turned renegade after their adoption and lived for long periods of time in the nomadic world of the red man, only to return to the white man’s ways in later times and become valuable scouts and interpreters. Others may have lived out the remainder of their lives with the Indians.”
See the complete text of this chapter of the book at: Saltmakers Ordeal
Additional notes on some of those adopted by the Indians:
Among the saltmakers known to have been adopted were: Daniel Boone, Joseph Jackson, Micajah Callaway, William Hancock, John Dunn, George Hendricks, Aaron Foreman, Benjamin Kelly, Ansel Goodman, John Holley, Andrew Johnson, John Brown and Richard Wade.”
Andrew Johnson pretended to be a simpleton from soon after the capture until he managed to escape from the Indian town. His Shawnee name was “Pequolly” or “Little Fish”. Because of his pretended simple mindedness, he was sometimes called “Little Shut His Eyes”.
William Hancock was adopted by Will Emery (Capt. Will).
Joseph Jackson’s Shawnee name was “Fish”. He stayed with the Shawnees even after the war.
Daniel Boone’s Shawnee name was “Sheltowee”, or “Big Turtle”. He was adopted into the family of the Shawnee Chief, Blackfish.
Jack Dunn escaped early, but was conflicted by his identity. He was on his way to warn his Indian family of a pending raid, and was captured and tortured to death by KY Rangers.
Ansel Goodman, George Hendricks and Aaron Foreman escaped together, but Hendricks was recaptured and severely beaten.